The Total Solar Eclipse And Earthshine.
Back To The Home Page
The following is an extract from Wiki, where the author tries to convince us that although the Moon is well illuminated during a TSE, the Black Moon we see just appears to be black.
Back To Eclipse Start Page
        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse#Earthshine
        
        Earthshine
During a total solar eclipse, the Moon's shadow covers only a small fraction of the Earth. The Earth continues to receive at least 92 percent of the amount of sunlight it receives without an eclipse - more if the penumbra https:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\Penumbra of the Moon's shadow partly misses the Earth. Seen from the Moon, the Earth during a total solar eclipse is mostly brilliantly illuminated, with only a small dark patch showing the Moon's shadow. The brilliantly-lit Earth reflects a lot of light to the Moon. If the corona https:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\Corona of the eclipsed Sun were not present, the Moon, illuminated by earthlight, would be easily visible from Earth. This would be essentially the same as the earthshine https:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\Earthshine which can frequently be seen when the Moon's phase https:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\Lunar_phase is a narrow crescent. In reality, the corona, though much less brilliant than the Sun's photosphere <https:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\Photosphere>, is much brighter than the Moon illuminated by earthlight. Therefore, by contrast, the Moon during a total solar eclipse appears to be black, with the corona surrounding it.



As the TSE can be observed with the naked eye, the corona cannot be very bright.  In fact the moon at this time, "by contrast",  may be brighter than the corona.
"Appears to be black"  Just what does this mean in plain English.  The writer on Wiki obviously knows that the Moon is not black in reality, because it is lit by Earthshine, so chooses to make it "appear to be black by contrast," but gives no factual degree of illumination for either the Moon or corona. No evidence is given as to why or how this "black by contrast "could occur.

What we see IS BLACK. The Moon must be well illuminated. The black disk we see may not be the actual Moon.

https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/strategies/human_ex/lighting_constraints.pdf

This is a well researched document from NASA which describes in great detail the degree of Earthshine illumination on the Moon. At Lunar Midnight, or New Moon, the illumination on the Moon's surface where the Earth is directly overhead, is claimed to be 76 times greater than a Full Moon on Earth. For a comparison with Sunlight on Earth, the author states that it is approximately equivalent to the degree of light in the Southern US States in July about 8pm or about 15 minutes after Sunset.